Improving animal traction technology
Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa

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Improving animal traction technology
edited by 
Paul Starkey
, Emmanuel Mwenya and John Stares 

490 pages and 400 illustrations including 175 photos
Published 1994. ISBN 92-9081-127-7

This book derives from the first ATNESA workshop held in Lusaka, Zambia. Its 490 pages contain some 85 edited papers prepared by 105 authors from 30 countries. The text is supported by more than 400 illustrations, including 175 photographs. This book provides a wealth of ideas and experiences concerning animal traction in many countries and will be valuable to all people interested in this important field of agricultural development, especially those involved in training, extension, research, development, planning, gender issues and infrastructural support. The book is co-published by the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural  Cooperation (CTA), Wageningen, The Netherlands E-mail:  URL:

All the papers in this beook are now available in PDF format  to read on-line, download and/or print out. Most papers have file sizes between 150 kb and 500 kb. Depending on the speed of your connection, these files will take between one and four minutes to download. Papers with photographs generally have larger files and these are marked in yellow (over one megabyte) or red (over two megabytes) and these will take longer to download. 

(Click on title to download the workshop report and the papers)

Preface, acknowledgement and introductions

Workshop reports

An overview of the workshop (1.3MB)
        P Starkey     16
Final workshop analysis; progress, needs and priorities
        M Guntz     23
Networking introductions, announcement and resources     27
Field visit observations     32  (1MB)
ATNESA Network Meetings     48
Statutes of the animal traction network for Eastern and Southern Africa (ATNESA)     50
Workshop evaluation
        P Starkey, E Mwenya and M Starkey     52
Addresses of workshop participants     61

Overview papers

Animal traction a worldwide view with a small farmer perspective (4MB)
        Paul Starkey	66
Animal traction networks in Africa: background, lessons and implications
        Paul Starkey	82

The profitability of animal traction

Increasing the profitability of draft animal power
        A Panin  and J Ellis-Jones 	94
Government financial assistance programmes to improve the profitability of animal traction in Botswana
        A Panin, M Mrema and M Mahabile	 104
A note on improving the profitability of a large-scale commercial farm in Zambia through the use of oxen
        Bruce Danckwerts	108
A note on the potential profitability of animal traction in Nakuru District, Kenya
        Paul Mugo Maina	110
Improving profitability of weeding technology in maize and sorghum production in Northern Nigeria
        J O Olukosi  and A O Ogungbile 	112
Increasing agricultural production by using animal traction: a rural development puzzle
        Jacques de Graaf 	116

The management of draft animals

Improving draft animal management (1.3MB)
        R Anne Pearson and A J Smith	122 
Effect of draft work on lactation of F1 crossbred dairy cows
        E Zerbini, Takele Gemeda, Alemu Gebre Wold and Abiye Astatke	 130
Animal traction use in Tabora Region, Tanzania
        A P B Luziga, S Nyakalo and T E Simalenga	136
Care and management of work oxen in Tanzania: initial survey results
        G J M Mgaya, T E Simalenga and N Hatibu	139
Improving management of draft animals in Zambia
        Gervazio B M Phiri	144
Characteristics and uses of donkeys in Botswana
        A A Aganga and K Maphorisa	146
Donkey power for appropriate mechanisation and transport for women in Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe
        Rodger Mpande	150
Improving draft animal management with strategic chemoprophylactic control of trypanosomiasis
        R J Connor	155
Improving draft animal nutrition management through strategic supplementation in Zimbabwe
        J Francis, L R Ndlovu and J R Nkuuhe	158
Improving the management of feed resources for draft animals in Mangwende, Zimbabwe
        S Chikura	162
Feeding crop residues for improved draft power
        V L Prasad , C T Khombe  and P Nyathi 	164

Animal-powered tillage and weeding technology

Improving animal-powered tillage systems and weeding technology (1.1MB)
        Piet A Stevens	168 
The use of animal-drawn cultivators for maize production in the southern highlands of Tanzania
        E M Kwiligwa, R M Shetto and D J Rees	182
Techniques and implements for weeding with draft animals in Tanzania
        A K Kayumbo	191
Improving animal-powered tillage systems in Tanzania
        A K Kayumbo	194
Development of an animal-drawn disc ridger for a tied ridging system of conservation tillage
        J?Egen Hagmann	198
Improving animal-powered reduced tillage systems in Zimbabwe
        S Chikura	203
Design innovations to simplify the regulation of animal-drawn mouldboard plows in Zambia
        Hans Helsloot*	206
Improving the Hata donkey-drawn weeder in Niger: experiences and results
        F Emhardt	210
Animal draft tillage systems: the need for an integrated approach
        Frank M Inns	214
Development of an animal-drawn puddler for rice production on the Usangu Plains of Tanzania
        M L Lecca, I A Kinyaga and J B Bunyinyiga	218
Tillage and weed control on medium potential lands in Kenya
        J M Kahumbura	222

The supply and distribution of implements for animal traction

Supply and distribution of implements for animal traction: an overview with region-specific scenarios (1.4MB)
        Aalbert A Wanders	226
Improving the supply and distribution of farm implements in Ethiopia: some experiences and constraints
        Hans Zaugg	244
Improving the supply and distribution of animal traction implements: the thoughts of an inventor
        Jean Nolle	247
Jean Nolle, 1918-1993 
        P Starkey     253
A note on improving the supply and distribution of animal-drawn implements in Zambia
        E A Sakala	254
Improving the distribution of animal traction implements in Mbeya Region, Tanzania
        J Y Jumbe	256

Women and animal traction technology

Women and animal traction technology
        Ann-Charlotte Sylwander	260
Women and animal traction in Mbeya Region of Tanzania: a gender and development approach
        K Marshall  and M Sizya	266
Transportation by women, and their access to animal-drawn carts in Zimbabwe
        J Doran 	272
Women and animal traction technology: experiences of the Tanga Draft Animal Project, Tanzania
        Andrew C Makwanda	276
Women's access to animal traction technology: cases studies from Darfur, Sudan and Turkana, Kenya
        Simon Croxton	     280
The importance of women's participation in animal traction in Zambia
        Margaret Lombe, Christine Sikanyika and Annie N Tembo	284
The impact of mobile ox plowing courses for women in the Western Province of Zambia
        Cara Hocking	288
A note on women and animal traction technology in Ethiopia
        Oumer Taha	292
A note on the use of animal traction by women in North Western Province, Zambia
        Ivor Mukuka	293

The transfer of animal traction technology

Transfer of animal traction technology: lessons from project experiences in Zimbabwe, Cameroon and Tanzania
        René Fischer	296
Experiences with the use of a single ox for cultivation in the Ethiopian highlands
        Abiye Astatke and M A Mohammed-Saleem	301
The transfer of animal traction technology: some lessons from Sierra Leone (1.5MB)
        Paul Starkey	306
Transfer of animal traction technology: cultural and social issues in Tarime District, Tanzania
        Hussein Sosovele	318
Towards a sustainable system for animal traction technology transfer: experiences from Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania
        A Galema	321
A note on issues to be addressed in the transfer of animal traction technology in Tanzania
        R L S Urasa	326
Transfer of animal traction technology in Mbozi District, Tanzania
        Godfrey Mwakitwange    329
Improving animal traction technology in Uganda
        Alphonse E Akou 	331
Developing extension programmes for transfer of animal traction technology in Uganda
        J O Y Omoding	334
A note on factors influencing the transfer of animal traction technology in Uganda
        Emenyu Henry Smuts Ojirot	338
Improving animal power utilisation in Malawi:the work of the Animal Power Utilisation Project
        Wells Kumwenda and Paul de Roover 	340
Transfer of animal traction technology in Zambia: an historical perspective
        Adrian Wood and John Milimo 	344
Constraints and opportunities in the transfer of draft animal technologies in Zambia
        Martin Bwalya	  350
Transfer of animal traction technology to farmers in the North Western Province of Zambia
        Christian Löffler     354
Experiences with improving animal traction technology in Kaoma District, Western Province of Zambia
        H G Kamphuis     360
A note on animal draft power in Kabwe Smallholder Development Project, Central Province, Zambia
        A Mkandawire	     364
Transfer of animal traction technology in Luapula Province, Zambia
        S L Lubumbe	366
Transfer of animal traction technologies in Zambia through on-farm programmes
        Roelof A Meijer     369
Role of the Farm Implements and Tools (FIT) project in the transfer of animal traction technology
        Hans Helsloot       374

Animal-powered transport

Improving animal-based transport:  options, approaches, issues and impact (1.7MB)
        Mary Anderson and Ron Dennis	378
Improving animal-based transport:  technical aspects of cart design
        Ron Dennis and Mary Anderson	396
Design, adaptation and manufacture of animal-drawn carts
        Josef Wirth	405
Improving animal-drawn transport technology in Tanzania: work on ox carts and bearings
        Felix K Mujemula	414
Rural transport in Zambia: the design of an ox cart which can be produced in rural areas
        H Vroom	418
Work on animal power harness technology in Kenya
        Luurt Oudman	422
A note on a donkey harnessing problem and innovation in Zimbabwe
        Peta A Jones	426
Low technology rolling-element bearings for animal-powered transport and equipment
        C E Oram	428

Diversifying operations using animal power

Improving the efficiency of an animal-powered gear to meet the requirements of different machines
        K Dippon	436
Experience with the introduction of animal-power systems in Zambia
        Hans Drechsel and Christian Löffler	440
Animal traction technology for logging in Zambia
        Christopher Kalima	445
A note on the use of donkeys for rural road maintenance in Tanga Region, Tanzania
        Ren?EFischer	448
The potential for animal power in small-scale mining in southern Africa
        K C Taupitz	450

Country experiences and constraints

Development and transfer of animal traction technology in Ethiopia
        Kebede Desta	454
Animal traction technology in Malawi: potential and constraints
        M L Mwinjilo	456
Improving animal traction technology in Malawi: some recent investigations and trials
        Darwin Dodoma Singa	460
Improving animal traction technology in northern Namibia: past experience and apparent needs
        D K Morrow	464
A note on promoting an ox cultivation strategy for Uganda
        A A Okuni	468
Animal draft power in Zambia: constraints to development and possibilities for improvements
        E Mwenya, W N M Mwenya and H J Dibbits	469
Animal traction technology in Niger and some implications for Zambia
        Fred Kruit	474
In ATNESA countries, this book can be obtained from the national networks. 
It is also available worldwide from:
The Development Bookshop / Intermediate Technology Publications, 
The Schumacher Centre, Bourton Hall
Bourton-on-Dunsmore, Rugby, CV23 9QZUK
E-mail:           URL:

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