Empowering farmers with animal traction
Animal Traction Network for Eastern and Southern Africa

 Empowering farmers with animal traction
edited by Pascal Kaumbutho, Anne Pearson and Timothy Simalenga
344p 2000 
ISBN 0-907146-10-4

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Section 1: Overview of issues and challenges
Animal traction in South Africa into the 21st Century 10-17
	B. Joubert and J. Kotsokoane
Empowering farmers with animal traction: worldwide trends, issues and challenges 18-21 
	P.H. Starkey
Empowering people through donkey power into the next millenium 22-31
	E.M. Nengomasha, R.A. Pearson, and Alemu Gebre Wold
Preserving the environment through conservation tillage with animal traction 32-49
	P.G. Kaumbutho and E. Mwenya
Section 2: Participatory research, development and technology transfer
Technology transfer and on-farm evaluation of animal powered equipment: approach and experience of IMAG-DLO  52-60 
	A.A. Wanders and P. Stevens
Participatory rural development and technology transfer: empowering small scale farmers
with appropriate technology skills  61-63
	J. Phakati
Assisting small scale farmers to produce healthy animals 64-66
	J. Turton
The adaption of a ripper-planter unit for local conditions 67-69
	D. Hanekom
Animal-drawn implements for improved cultivation in Ethiopia: participatory development and testing 70-75
	Melesse Temesgen
Animal-drawn implement supply, distribution and services in Malawi 76-81
	W.F. Kumwenda
Zimplow Limited. 82
	R. Lourenco, and W. Chipepera
Community based cattle projects in Zambia: a new approach to oxenisation 83-90
	C. Kaoma-Sprenkels and N. Mwenda
Rapid appraisal methodologies for animal traction 91-100
	P.H. Starkey
The use of information technology in animal traction development 101-104
	J. Swiegers 
Conservation tillage and integrated land management: field experiences and extension approaches 105-114
	J. Rockstrom, A. Kitalyi and P. Mwalley
Section 3: Gender issues in animal traction
Gender issues in animal traction and rural transport: regional perspectives 116-123
	S. Musa
Gender issues in animal traction and rural transport in Uganda 124-126
	F.B. Lubwama
Gender and animal draught power: experiences of Palabana with small scale farmers in Zambia 127-130
	R. Mofya and N. Chisenga
Gender issues in animal traction in South Sudan 131-134
	E.M. Waithanji
Section 4: Animal management, health and welfare 
Multipurpose use of work animals in smallholder farming systems 136-141
	J.T. Dijkman, Alemu Gebre Wold and R.A. Pearson
Strategic dry season supplementation of traditionally managed draught animals
in Northern Malawi: current practices and proposed strategies for the future 142-145
	M.S.L. Kumwenda
Strategies to improve the effectiveness of supplementary feeding for working cattle in semi-arid 
crop/livestock systems 146-152
	S. Israel and R.A. Pearson
Management of draught animals: a welfare and health perspective in South Africa 153-162
	M. James and R.C. Krecek
Haematological studies on apparently healthy donkeys in Oodi, Kgatleng District, Botswana 163-165
	E.Z. Mushi, M.G. Binta and R.T. Ndebele
Comparison of haematological changes and strongyle faecal egg counts in donkeys in Kiambu district, 
Kenya 166-8
	A.K. Lewa, T.A. Ngatia, W.K. Munyua and N.E. Maingi
Work stress innate resistance of working bulls on two planes of nutrition: lessons from the N’dama cattle 
of  West Africa 169-178
	O.O. Akinbamijo, R.A. Pearson and T.W. Jones
Investigation into the common diseases of donkeys (Equus asinus) in Botswana 179-182
	B.V.E. Segwagwe, A.A. Aganga and C. Patrick
Pathological lesions associated with internal parasitosis in donkeys in Kiambu district, Kenya 183-184
	A.K. Lewa, T.A. Ngatia, W.K. Munyua and N.E. Maingi
Hitching is the problem with harnessing donkey 185-192
	P. Jones 
Section 5: Rural transport and entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurship in animal traction: empowering rural initiatives 194-200
	R.M. Shetto, S. Mkomwa and T.E. Simalenga
Rural travel and transport and economic development: problems and prospects in rural Africa – examples 
from  Malawi and Zimbabwe  201-204
	F. Ali-Nejadfard
Animal powered transport of goods in a diverse temporal and spatial environment: a case study of 
Lari, Central Kenya 205-209
	J. Mutua and J.N. Mwangi
Improving on-farm transport using animal draught power in two hilly districts of Western Uganda  210-212
	J. Ayo-Odongo, C. Mutyaba and P. Kalunda
The horse-drawn hitch cart  213-218
	B. Joubert
Empowering through animal based transport: issues and challenges for farmers, pastoralists and artisans 219-228
	C. Oram, P.G. Kaumbutho and P. Simpkin

Section 6: Economics and future opportunities 
Profitability of using animal traction under smallholder farming conditions in Eastern Cape, South Africa 230-234
        T.E. Simalenga, A. Belete, N.A. Mseleni and L.L. Jongisa
Calculating the true costs of donkey ownership 235-239
        P. Jones
Possible use of wild animals in provision of draught power in the 21st Century 240-241
	R. M. Mwanzia
Animal-drawn punch planters: a key technology for smallholder agricultural development in the 
21st Century 242-248 **  550 kb
        T.W. Scheidweiler 
Mechanising agriculture using animal traction and small scale irrigation 249-253 **  360 kb
        A.B.D. Joubert and T.E. Simalenga
Section 7: Country papers: experiences and challenges
A review of donkey use in Botswana over a ten-year period 256-261
	C. Patrick, B.V.E. Segwagwe and A.A. Aganga
Animal traction technology in Botswana: potential and constraints 262-265
	A.A. Aganga, C. Patrick and B.V.E. Segwagwe
Performance of donkeys as draught animals in Zambia:  an overview 266-268
	B. Ahmadu, N. Chisenga and P. Chipasha
Welfare and use of livestock for draught in Swaziland 269-271
	A.M. Dlamini
Present and future prospects of animal traction in Morocco 272-278
	G. Oodally, C. Jenane and H. Belemilih
Empowering farmers through animal traction in India 279-290 
	G. Singh
Challenges of animal traction in the 21st Century: the experiences from various projects in the North 
Central Division of Namibia 291-295
	P. Talavera
Challenges of animal traction research and development in West and Central Africa at the eve of 
the 21st century 296-302 **  400 kb
        M. Havard, A. Njoya, R. Pirot, E. Vall and B. Wampfler
Draught animal power: experiences of farmer training in the northern communal areas of Namibia 303-306 
	 J. Mulanda, E. Mwenya and E. Namalambo
Conservation tillage in cotton and maize fields in Malawi 307-314 **  430 kb
	A.D.C. Chillimba
Draught animal energy research in India 315-322
	G. Singh
The role of animal traction in the Molopo district in North-West Province, South Africa 323-325
	M. L. Makaota and D. Motiang
Animal traction as a source of power for agricultural development in Nigeria 326-330 **  400 kb
	E.A. Ajav 
This section is still under construction and pdf files for the missing papers will follow soon!
Workshop report
Workshop synthesis and summary of discussions 332-333
Workshop recommendations and follow-up 334-336
List and contacts of workshop participants 337-240
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